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Therefore the failure distribution reflects the time for each site to become active, which controls the kinetics and therefore the time to failure, which is described by the same variables as the corrosion model. In fact, the metal migration mechanism is an electrochemical process in which the oxidation-reduction involves no corrosion product because the metal ions are transported, reduced, and deposited at the cathode in the metallic state rather than combining with anions to form salts, hydroxides in situ.

Aluminum and Al–Cu stripes are similarly affected by electromigation. Opens occur where there is a mass flux divergence due to grain size differences along the stripe: large grains followed by small grains in the direction of the electron current, which provides more grain boundaries for the mass outflow (Fig. 17). ’’ The electric field exerts a 203 force on the activated ions in a direction opposite to that of the electron flow. By colliding with activated metal ions, the electrons exert a force on them in the electron flow direction.

For metal migration to occur, the current density flux must be above the critical value which varies from metal to metal. The mechanism requires a sufficient film of water to condense or adsorb in the gap, on the chip, or substrate surface to provide the migration medium for the ions, which migrate from the anode to the cathode, where they deposit and 202 DESIGN FOR MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY where QTIP ϭ metal deposition rate ␳ ϭ Density of dendrite l ϭ Distance between biased circuit electrodes M ϭ Atomic weight tb ϭ Maximum time to bridge without poisoning Figure 16.

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