By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent figuring out of the results of torsion on concrete contributors is vital to the secure, reasonably priced layout of bolstered and prestressed concrete participants. This file starts with a short and systematic precis of the 180-year heritage of torsion of structural concrete individuals, new and up to date theories and their purposes, and a historic evaluate outlining the improvement of study on torsion of structural concrete individuals. old theories and truss versions contain classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the 3-dimensional (3-D) area truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box concept (CFT) through Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) by means of Hsu and Mo.
This file emphasizes that it's necessary to the research of torsion in strengthened concrete that individuals should still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium situation (Mohr’s pressure circle); 2) obey the compatibility (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) determine the constitutive relationships of fabrics reminiscent of the “softened” stress-strain courting of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain dating of metal bars. The habit of contributors subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This file bargains with layout concerns, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and measurement results.
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Extra resources for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
2. Calculate the balanced normalized reinforcement ratios when both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements yield simultaneously with crushing of diagonal struts hlb and htb 4. 2g) 5. 2h) 6. Use wL and wt to determine the value of ws from Fig. 2. The coordinate (wL, wt) in the four failure mode regions also determines the member failure mode; and 7. Determine the torsional strength. 2i) The graphical solution using Fig. 2 is not exact. Its accuracy is affected by the aspect ratio of the cross section and the difference in the yield stresses, fℓy and fty, when calculating fy = (fℓy + fty)/2.
These actions are illustrated by an equivalent structure shown in Fig. 4b. Slab action is modeled as truss elements posi- tioned eccentric to the centroidal axes of the beam elements and connected to the beams through short rigid segments. For any curvature distribution along the longitudinal or main beams as identified in the figure, this configuration creates a corresponding elongation at mid-depth of the slab. Truss forces are transferred to the transverse beam by modeled truss elements in the slab, creating a torsional lever arm in the transverse (spandrel) beam.
3f. Two simple equations (Eq. 3b)) are derived based on this theory. 5, and 1. The increase in torsional strength calculated using both equations is larger than the experimentally-observed increase shown in Fig. 3d. Both equations give acceptable results when pure torsion strength To is taken as the conservatively calculated value, as demonstrated by Lampert and Collins (1972). Since 1971, ACI code procedures for the design of members subjected to flexure and torsion are based on the superposition of reinforcement required to resist torsion (longitudinal and transverse) and flexural moment (longitudinal).