By R. E. Anderson, J. E. Boggan, L. J. Cerullo, M. C. Chan, G. J. Dohrmann, M. S. B. Edwards, V. A. Fasano, J. M. Gilsbach, A. Harders, R. M. Ikeda, P. J. Kelly, E. R. Laws Jr., G. Lee, T. Letardi, D. T. Mason, C. R. Neblett, R. W. Rand, A. Renieri, I. L. Ri
Since the creation of electrosurgery the thoughts of surgical procedure at the frightened method have gone through extra advancements (bipolar coagulation, microscope), whether the strategy was once no longer considerably converted. this day, laser represents a brand new "discipline", because it deals a brand new manner of appearing all simple maneuvers (dissection, demolition, hemostasis, vessel sutures). additionally, laser deals the opportunity of a distinct maneuver, particularly aid of the quantity of a tumoral mass via vaporization. Its program isn't constrained to conventional neurosurgery yet extends additionally to stereotactic and vascular neurosurgery. Laser surgical procedure has additionally encouraged the anesthesiologic innovations. while new instrumentation has been brought: CUSA ultrasonic aspiration, echotomography, and Doppler flowmeter. i've got had the opportunity to make use of those new applied sciences all at a time and feature come to the belief that we face the sunrise of a brand new method which has already proven its validity and shortage of inconveniences, and whose item is to extend the precision of neurological surgical procedure. The technological improvement continues to be occurring, and a few advancements are to be foreseen. Laser scalpel is splitting the preliminary laser surgical procedure into NO contact and contact surgical procedure with laser. As new instrumentarium should be constructed, a variable and tunable beam becomes on hand. for instance, in many years loose Electron Laser will additional upload to the development during this field.
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Additional info for Advanced Intraoperative Technologies in Neurosurgery
However, the 42 J. M . Gilsbach and A. =Isec Fig. 13. Anterior communicating aneurysm with generally high and irregular flow pattern with normal vessel calibers as a sign of a reduced peripheral resistance. A common finding in acute aneurysm surgery. 5 kHz) I , . t. , feeding arteries draining veins after exclusion lkHzLlsec Fig. 14. Flow pattern of an intracerebral arteriovenous malformation. Depending on the diameter and flow volume in the arteries, an accelerated to irregular flow with high diastolic components is found.
Photochemical effects take place in near-ultraviolet rays and visible radiations. Thermal effects are prevalent in visible portion of the spectrum and in infrared rays. 2. Quantitative Interaction The quantitative interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter is related to the concept of extinction factor G) and follows the Lambert Beer's law: where: I = intensity of the beam at a certain depth in the tissue. 10 = initial intensity of the incident beam. e = base of natural logarithm. This law expresses the fact that the intensity of an incident beam in a biological tissue decreases exponentially with the depth, depending on the extinction factor.
The Neodymium: YAG laser is a solid state laser, made from a crystal yttrium aluminum garnet (Y 3AI s0 2) with incorporated (ion doped) Nd 3+ of certain concentration; these ions are excited by the absorption of light energy. It is accomplished by focusing the light from a discharge lamp (Kripton lamps of 1,000 watts each) on rod-like crystal by a suitable system of electrical cylindrical mirrors (optical pumps). The resonator may be arranged directly on the end surface of the cylindrical crystal or positioned away from them.