By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This ebook had its genesis in a symposium on fuel hydrates provided on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yankee Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers awarded in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy themes now not addressed through the symposium. fuel hydrates are a distinct category of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside of an open sturdy lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a majority of these configurations are referred to as clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped by means of the host fabric. Commonexamples of gasoline hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At common strain and temperature, methane hydrate comprises by means of quantity one hundred eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the us Geological Survey (USGS) has anticipated that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other kinds of fossil fuels mixed. actually, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of power for numerous centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first stumbled on within the early 1800s while Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combos.
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Extra info for Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates
Parameters used in the studies are listed in Tables 1 and 2 and are similar to those given elsewhere [20, 21]. 5 W/m-K, and any possible heat flow from the base- and cap-rock into the reservoirs is computed by a semi-analytical integral method suggested by Vinsome and Westerveld . This method has been extensively used in thermal reservoir simulators that require accurate estimation of heat exchange between the reservoir and the base- and caprock. The velocities in the convective term of Equation (1) are calculated using the multi-phase flow equations along with the relative permeability function of Figure 5a.
8] presented some induction data measurements for formation of methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide hydrates. These measurements were obtained in the same equipment using the same experimental procedure as in Englezos, et al. . A meta-stable region for hydrate nucleation was considered. They used the crystallization theory to formulate a model for the hydrate induction time required for formation of stable hydrate nuclei. Makogon  and Englezos, et al. [5,6] pointed out the similarities between the crystallization and hydrate formation processes.
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