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By Raynor L. Duncombe (auth.), P. Kenneth Seidelmann, Jean Kovalevsky (eds.)

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Extra resources for Applications of Computer Technology to Dynamical Astronomy: Proceedings of the 109th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, 27–29 July 1988

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Developments in integration methods are likely to prove more fruitful in addressing chaos. Symplectic (Deprit 1969) or energy conserving (Marciniak 1985) methods deserve attention. 2 POISSON METHODS Relaxation times are very long in galaxies, and the most straightfor¥Tard way to build that into a program is to use many particles. Binary formation is thought not to be important as well. Both of these features urge smoothing the mass distribution. The mass distribution no longer looks like an assembly of point particles.

Arp. : 1987, A Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. : 1978, Astron. Astrophys. 69, 395. : 1984, Physics Reports 114, 319. : 1982, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron Soc. 200,407. : 1976, Astrophys. J. 208, 688. : 1977, Astrophys. J. 218, 86. : 1978, Astrophys. J. 226, 70. : 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 166, 75. : 1986, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 220, 619. D. Thesis, University of Cambridge. : 1982, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 201, 1021. : 1983, Astrophys.

In a sample of 17 spirals, de Vaucou1eurs (1958) found all to have trailing arms. Pasha (1985) examined 189 galaxies indicating that 4 had leading arms. Sharp and Keel (1985) examined two of these and found one to be a two-armed trailing spiral and the other not to be a spiral galaxy. It is not clear that the remaining two are leading arm spirals (Blackman 1982). At this point, one might wonder whether any leading arm spirals exist. Ka1najs (1975) and Athanassou1a (1978) have suggested that M32 in a retrograde orbit has created a leading arm in the inner parts of M31.

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