By Betty N. Gordon, Carolyn S. Schroeder
Univ. of Kansas, Kansas urban. offers an summary of fit improvement from infancy to preadolescence. utilizing a step by step strategy, textual content covers the psychopathology of hazards and protecting components, the transparent formula of remedies and objectives, and guidance for perform. includes case reports. Written for clinicians and others operating with youngsters. past variation: c1991.
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Extra resources for Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems
Child temperament alone, however, does not determine parent–child relationships. Rather, the “fit” among the unique characteristics of the child, the parent, and the environment is the critical factor in developmental outcomes. In a study of high-risk black children, McBride-Murry and Brody (1999) found that parenting protective factors, such as high expectations for child behavior and academic performance and consistent household routines, buffered the effect of difficult child temperament on the children’s ability to self-regulate their behavior.
Ing (we are determined not to do to our children what our parents did to us) (Muller, Hunter, & Stollak, 1995; Simons, Whitbeck, Conger, & Chyi-In, 1991). Belsky (1984) argues that the influence of parenting history is more likely to be indirect; he states that “in general, supportive developmental experiences give rise to a mature, healthy personality, [one] that is then capable of providing sensitive parental care which fosters optimal child development” (p. 86). A study by Crockenberg (1987) illustrates how parenting history is important in determining current parent behavior.
Because of their intensity and equality, friendships provide optimal context for learning certain social skills, such as cooperation and intimacy. Hartup (1989) points out that although close relationships with other children may not be developmental necessities, being disliked by one’s companions is an important risk factor, because social rejection in childhood is consistently found to be related to later adjustment problems (Coie & Cillessen, 1993; Parker & Asher, 1987). Achenbach and Edelbrock (1981) report that 30–75% of children referred to guidance clinics are reported by their parents to have difficulties with peers.