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Extra resources for Atmospheric Transport of Neutrons, Gammas from Near-Horizon Nuclear Detonations

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12. Surveillance (periodic inspection), the monitoring of dams and dykes, and maintenance work should be permanent during construction and during operation to prevent possible damage such as the internal erosion of dykes. 13. Sea walls, breakwaters and revetments are civil engineering structures for protecting important facilities of a nuclear power plant against the wave action of an ocean or a lake during storms and tsunamis. These structures should be properly designed to prevent soil erosion, flooding and structural failures which may jeopardize the safety of important facilities.

7. The following criteria should be applied in the choice of the foundation system: — The forces due to the structures should be transmitted to the soil with no unacceptable deformation; 28 — The soil deformations induced by the SL-2 input motion should be compatible with the design requirements of the structure; — The risks associated with the uncertainties in the evaluation of the seismic response should be considered in the design and construction of the foundation system; — The risks associated with possibly ‘aggressive’ underground water should be taken into account; — One single type of foundation should be used for each structure; — The choice of the type of foundation should depend on the type of building (basemat should be used for the nuclear island because it provides homogeneous settlements under static and dynamic loads and because it provides a barrier between the environment and the buildings).

Where fractured rock is present as foundation material, a local safety factor should also be included. The local safety factor is defined as the ratio of the strength to the working stress at each point where there might be yielding or local sliding along the existing fracture zones and weathered zones beneath the foundation. This factor indicates the extent of the yielding zones or the progressive failure of the material subjected to the design load. It is useful in determining the position and extent of the improvements that may be required in foundation materials and in choosing an appropriate technique for the improvements.

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