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By KAMALESH KUMAR

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Write short note about seismograph, seismogram and seismic waves obtained from seismogram. 1 INTRODUCTION Natural disasters like earthquake, landslide, flood, drought, cyclone, forest fire, volcanic eruption, epidemic and major accidents are quite common in different parts of the globe. These lead to the loss of life, property damage and socio-economic disruption. Such losses have grown over the years due to increase in population and physical resources. 8 million lives during the past two decades only and have adversely affected 820 million people with a financial loss of about 25-100 million dollars.

In many cases, this will take the form of a probability distribution of expected site acceleration (or other measurements of ground motion) for a given exposure period. It will also give an indication of the frequency content of that motion. In some cases typical ground motion time histories called scenario earthquakes are developed. One approach is to use the historical epicenter database in conjunction with available geological data. These data are used to form a best estimate regarding the probability of site ground motion.

The results of laboratory tests are often presented in a form similar to Fig. 2 (B-1 and B-2). In Fig. 2 (B-1) the ordinate is the secant modulus divided by the modulus at small strains. In Fig. 2 (B-2) the ordinate is the value of the initial damping ratio. Both are plotted against the logarithm of the cyclic strain level. 1 γ (B-1) Cyclic Shear Strain vs. 1 γ (B-2) Cyclic Shear Strain vs. the Value of Initial Damping Ratio Fig. net>) 1 Dynamic Soil Properties 45 Home Work Problems 1. 85 respectively.

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