By Edward C. Peck, U.S. Forest Service
Wooden bending is an historic craft that's of key significance in lots of industries this day, particularly in those who manufacture furnishings, boats and ships, agricultural implements, device handles, and carrying items. Of different tools regularly occurring to provide curved components of wooden, bending is the main budget friendly of fabric, the best of participants of excessive energy, and maybe the most affordable. lengthy adventure has developed functional bending thoughts and expert craftsmen to use them. but advertisement operations frequently maintain severe losses due to breakage throughout the bending operation or the solving strategy that follows. there's a longfelt desire for extra trustworthy wisdom approximately: (1) standards for collection of bending inventory; (2) larger tools of seasoning and plasticizing wooden for bending; (3) extra effective machines for the bending operation; (4) concepts for drying and solving the bent half to the specified form; and (5) the impression of bending at the energy homes of wooden.
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Extra info for Bending solid wood to form
Consequently, the actual results when bending to the calculated radius can be expected to be somewhat more favorable than the 50-50 basis. If shear enters into bending, it means that cross-sectional planes do not remain perpendicular to the long axis of the stick. When a piece of wood is bent, the compressive strain is probably never distributed uniformly over the length of the curved part. The distribution of the strain is presumably affected by nonuniformity of the wood along the length, local minor irregularities, friction between the stick and parts of the apparatus, and the way the stick is forced and held against the form.
If the stress were proportional to the deformation, then C, the resultant of these stresses, would act at a distance of 2/3 h from the inner side of the strap. Since the stick is strained beyond the elastic limit, however, stress is not proportional to deformation and the distance is probably slightly less than 2/3 h. It is greater than ½ h, however, for if it was exactly ½ h no bending could occur, and if less than ½ h the bending would be in the opposite direction. Danger of crushing at the end of the stick will be least if P' is applied at the center of the height or thickness of the stick, that is, if Equation (4) shows that the ratio will be the least if a is given the largest value it can have.
Specimens of Wisconsin-grown red oak, 1 inch thick, were steamed at atmospheric pressure for 40 minutes and bent through an arc of 180 degrees to a radius of 25/8 inches. Parallel lines, 1 inch apart, were marked on the edges of the specimens before they were bent. After they were bent, the distance between these lines was measured on both convex and concave sides. The lengths of the lines across the thickness of the stick were also measured. The mean measurements for 11 sticks are shown in figure 18.