By Pierre-Claude Aïtcin
Linking concept to perform, this ebook offers a greater basic realizing of Portland cement and hydraulic binders that's essential to make higher concrete. it's been basically tested that concrete sturdiness is heavily associated with its water/binder ratio and correct curing throughout the first week after casting.
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Extra resources for Binders for durable and sustainable concrete
This concrete was composed of sand, stone, pottery rubble and bones. However, not everyone is yet convinced, as claimed by Davidovits (1987) and Morris (1991), that Egyptians used concrete blocks to build their pyramids. These two researchers state that the interior blocks of the pyramids were made of concrete and that only the external blocks were made of limestone. According to Davidovits, the concrete used in the pyramids was made from a special binder, which he calls a geopolymer, obtained by mixing silt from the Nile river, limestone powder and turquoise chrysocolla mine tailings from the Mount Sinai area.
This brief historical review will show how a series of fortuitous discoveries, sometimes combined with the scientific approach of people like Smeaton, Vicat, Aspdin, and many others, resulted in the discovery of the artificial binder that is Portland cement. Before presenting Portland cement’s chemical and phase composition, data on past and present Portland cement and hydraulic binders consumption will be presented to show how this consumption is presently satisfied by the cement and concrete industries.
It is only at the end of the eighteenth century that a certain interest in the use of lime reappeared. 14) (Bogue 1952; Papadakis and Venuat 1966). Smeaton found that usual lime mortars lacked time to harden before being immersed by high tide and exposed to the action of waves, therefore, he decided to compare the hardening properties of the different limes produced in the south of England. He found that some mortars made from impure limestone rich in clay hardened faster and were more durable than those made with pure limestone.