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By Claude Brezinski

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Further experiments 36 have demostrated that alpha energies are always discrete even in such cases, and the energy excess still possessed by the nucleus above its ground level is emitted in the form of a gamma photon. The process of alpha decay can be represented by energy level diagrams (decay schemes). 4. Note that the schemes also indicate the percentages of the individual alpha and gamma energies. Alpha energies are usually between 4-6 MeV and these limits are stepped across only in a few cases.

In this process the nucleus captures an s electron which spends some of its time in the nucleus anyway: iX=z-iX+ ve +~c · Now we do not have a positive ion, since both the number of protons and the number of electrons decreased by one. 27) where Eb is the binding energy of the captured K-electron. The case of ~+ decay is trickier. Here a proton transforms to a neutron by emitting a positron and a neutrino. e. 51 MeV. 22. Mass parabolas for some ofthe lightest even-A nuclei. 2lc for comparison).

This observation also points to the formation of compound nuclei retaining no memory of the direction of the bombarding protons. 2b). In this case, instead of producing compound nuclei, the high-energy bombarding particles break up the target nuclei. This kind of reaction is called a direct interaction or spallation. 2. Angular distribution of neutrons emitted in (p,n) reactions (a) proton energy is less than about 50 MeV; (b) proton energy is more than about 50 MeV. 2. Types of nuclear reactions Another aspect of nuclear reactions is a consideration of the type of particle by which they are induced.

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