By Mario Maj, Hagop S. Akiskal, Juan José López-Ibor Jr., Norman Sartorius
Bipolar disease is a significant psychological ailment concerning episodes of great mania and melancholy and impacts nearly one to 3 percentage of the inhabitants. based on the nationwide Institute of psychological overall healthiness approximately million participants within the usa by myself are clinically determined with this disease.
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Thus, patients with manic episodes will receive a schizoaffective diagnosis if delusions or hallucinations occur in the interepisodic period in the absence of prominent affective symptoms. As discussed earlier, many psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorders are of an explanatory nature, whereby the patient tries to make sense of the core experiences of the manic excitement. Such explanatory delusional process can be carried over into the interepisodic period. These patients would thereby be delusional in the absence of prominent mood symptoms and, technically (that is, by DSM-IV criteria), might be considered schizoaffective.
Depressed mood Irritability/hostility Mood lability Anhedonia Hopelessness/helplessness Suicidal ideation and/or attempt Guilt Fatigue BIPOLAR SUBTYPES AND THEIR VARIANTS Bipolar I Disorder Typically beginning in the teenage years, the 20s, or the 30s, the first episode of bipolar I disorder could be manic, depressive, or mixed [1, 88]. One common mode of onset is mild retarded depression, or hypersomnia, for a few weeks or months, which then often switches into a manic episode. In others, several depressive episodes occur before the first mania.
Thus, Perugi et al , reporting on 320 bipolar patients, have shown that bipolar illness with depression as the episode at onset is significantly more likely than manic and mixed state onsets to have developed rapid cycling, suicidal behaviour, and psychotic symptoms; mixed onsets, too, had high rates of suicide attempts, but differed from depressive onsets in having significantly more chronicity, yet negligible rates of rapid cycling. Because those with depressive onset had received significantly higher rates of antidepressant treatment, the findings lend indirect support to the hypothesis that antidepressants may have played a role in the induction of rapid cycling.