By Stanley N. Caroff, Stephan C. Mann, Andrew Francis
In the course of the twentieth century, catatonia all yet dropped off the schedule of mainstream psychiatric study. although, numerous committed learn teams, represented during this quantity, persevered to record unique facts highlighting catatonia as a proper and excellent topic for medical research. This booklet, which exemplifies the extraordinary breadth of the data received, will profit clinicians handling catatonic phenomena in addition to researchers attracted to pursuing extra investigations. This booklet covers in nice aspect the psychopathology and neurobiology of catatonia, targeting the historical past, epidemiology, etiology, prognosis and remedy of the sickness. This finished quantity -Offers a large illustration of the historic and world wide literature at the many variations of catatonia in one, well-organized textual content. -Includes paintings offered through the unique investigators, a lot of whom paintings outdoors the us and feature had their past stories released in simple terms in non-English journals. -Covers replacement reviews and views on catatonia, contributing novel and illuminating views at the syndrome. -Addresses components of controversyAincluding disagreements over therapy and the nosologic prestige of catatoniaAhead-on, in a balanced, evidence-based presentation. -Balances functional scientific fabric with the underlying neurobiology, providing medical elements within the context of historical past, epidemiology, cross-cultural views, and neurobiological findings and highlighting the richness and highbrow charm of the learn of the sickness. Catatonia is exclusive in supplying a various, overseas workforce of participants and this sort of entire, up to date overview of the scientific and clinical literature, spanning the breadth of latest realizing in regards to the nature, which means, and significance of the syndrome.
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Extra info for Catatonia: From Psychopathology to Neurobiology
The number of features or their duration required for the diagnosis is not experimentally established. Mutism and posturing (catalepsy) make up the classic catatonia syndrome. Generalized analgesia is common, sometimes to very painful stimuli. Patients remain in this state for long periods, and if poorly cared for, they develop malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, disuse muscle atrophy, contractures, and bedsores. They may die as a result of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolization. Mutism The patient is awake and may move about but is silent or has markedly reduced speech.
Until challenged by Taylor and Abrams (1977) and Morrison (1973), this practice may have artificially inflated estimates of catatonic schizophrenia in earlier studies. As a consequence, one might expect to see a proportional increase in the percentage of manic or depressed patients with catatonia in more recent studies. In fact, this increase has been observed among patients with mood disorders (Table 2–2); but an increase in the frequency of mania or depression among patients with catatonia has not been observed (Table 2–5).
Beyond these general attributes, each subtype has its own highly specific clinical presentation. The diagnosis of motility psychosis and each catatonia subtype hinges on the presence of a specific symptom highly characteristic of the particular subtype that is, as a rule, accompanied by several other symptoms, forming a distinct clinical syndrome. Leonhard’s system uses far more symptoms as building blocks of his catatonia subtypes than other classifications or diagnostic schemes. Another unusual characteristic of Leonhard’s system is that motor phenomena are given precedence over paranoidhallucinatory symptoms; unless the latter symptoms are pathognomonic to a certain subtype of schizophrenia, their presence or absence is regarded as a nonspecific accompanying feature of catatonia.