By Lecourtier, Jacqueline; Cartalos, Ulysse (Eds.)
Cementing is a tough operation and the standard of the outcome depends upon many elements linked to: the kingdom of the open gap part; the apparatus and fabrics hired; the fluids used; the tactics utilized. This rfile offers an replace of the knowledge and proposals on tools and methods to be utilized on the good website.
desk of Contents
1. Drawing Up the Cementing application
2. kinds of Cementing
three. environment Cement Plugs to strive against misplaced flow
four. factors of Failure in Casing Cement Jobs and treatments
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Additional resources for Cementing Technology and Procedures
Make sure that nozzles of different diameters are available. If necessary, a few cubic meters of slurry should be prepared to assist nozzle selection. 56 CEMENTING TECHNOLOGY AND PROCEDURES COMPRESSORS, SILOS AND SURGE TANK Make sure that the surge tank is not clogged with cement. The lines should be blown out to remove any deposits of cement, barite or bentonite. The unit should be pressurized to the service pressure to detect any leaks and to determine the efficiency of the compressor. The pressure should be bleed off after the test.
The different operations are as follows: (a) Sending of the trip plug which displaces the bottom inner sleeve, opening the ports of the DV. The fluid can then circulate through the DV, and second-stage cementing can proceed. (b) Sending of the closing or shut-off plug, which displaces the top inner sleeve, blocking the casing side ports. An outer sleeve is displaced mechanically a t the same time, closing the annulus side ports (Baker Model G and Halliburton Model). The casing/annulus seal is provided by O-rings.
Leaks through ECPs are not rare (annuludcasing communication), and the hydrostatic isolation between the upper and lower annuli is not guaranteed. A string equipped with an ECP must also be run in carefully. The running in rate must be lower than normal, in order to avoid overpressures in the open hole. This risk is high given the large diameter of the ECP in comparison with the hole. This remark also applies to the running in of a DV packer. 46 CEMENTING TECHNOLOGY AND PROCEDURES LANDING COLLAR AND RUBBER SEAL-OFF PLATE The landing collar is a simple channel collar on which the top cementing plug is placed to form a seal at the end of flush of the first cementing stage.