By Barbara Einhorn; Palgrave Connect (Online service)
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Extra info for Citizenship in an enlarging Europe : from dream to awakening
Yet this model has obvious implications for gender relations, for equal opportunities, and for social justice that either are already – or will become – shared experiences between women and men in Eastern, Central and Western Europe. The chapter discusses the gendered character of unemployment during the transformation process; discriminatory advertising and hiring practices; the gender pay gap; occupational segregation; and the impact of social policy changes on pension entitlements. The final chapter (Chapter 8) returns to the central question running through the entire book, namely that of the utility of the concept of 20 Citizenship in an Enlarging Europe citizenship in striving towards a society characterized by gender equity.
Most women in Western Europe, whether they are exercised about the continuing gender pay gap, the glass ceiling, occupational segregation in all its forms, parental leave, domestic violence, lesbian rights, or the rights of migrant women and female asylum seekers, possess neither the social nor the financial capital to access such supra-national institutions. For the majority then, the nation state remains the only address to which they have access and to which they can address claims for citizenship rights, social entitlements and greater gender justice.
It then considers some of the reasons for the current privileging of civil society involvement, itself a contributing factor to the relative lack of attention paid by scholars and activists both within and outside the region to the importance of mainstream politics. The main body of the chapter is then concerned with women’s political participation, with the gendered barriers to that participation, and with strategies to overcome those barriers. It includes discussion of levels of representation at national and local level in individual countries in the region.