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By Giles M. Marion

This e-book explicitly investigates problems with astrobiological relevance within the context of chilly aqueous planetary geochemistry.

At the middle of the technical chapters is the FREZCHEM version, firstly constructed over a long time by means of one of many authors to quantify aqueous electrolyte homes and chemical thermodynamics at subzero temperatures. FREZCHEM, of normal relevance to biogeochemists and geochemical modelers, chilly planetary scientists, physicochemists and chemical engineers, is to that end utilized to the exploration of biogeochemical functions to sunlight platforms our bodies as a rule, and to speculations in regards to the limits for all times in chilly environments in particular.

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Additional resources for Cold Aqueous Planetary Geochemistry with FREZCHEM: From Modeling to the Search for Life at the Limits

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11) or calculated by the model (gas fugacity = φ(g) P(g) ) (see previous discussions). If we assume an ideal solid solution (γCH4 ·6H2 O = γCO2 ·6H2 O ), then Eq. 0). Then these mole fractions can be substituted into the denominator of Eqs. 51 to convert these pure gas equations into mixed gas equations. Or, alternatively, we could estimate γCH4 ·6H2 O and γCO2 ·6H2 O in Eq. 55 to get an improved model. Both of these approaches (Eqs. 56) will be discussed in the following text. We tested the stability of mixed gas hydrates with experimental data from Adisasmito et al.

For CO2 and CH4 in the FREZCHEM model, fugacity coefficients (φ) are explicitly calculated because these constituents can be present at high pressures where gas hydrates form. See the following section for a discussion of gas hydrate chemistries. For the remaining five Henry’s law equations (H2 O, O2 , HCl, HNO3 , H2 SO4 ), φ is assumed equal to unity and Eq. 3. Temperature range and primary references of gas and solution phase equilibria in FREZCHEM modela Reaction Temperature References range (◦ C) H2 O(g) ↔ H2 O(l) CO2 (g) ↔ CO2 (aq) −93 to 25 0 to 100 O2 (g) ↔ O2 (aq) 0 to 100 CH4 (g) ↔ CH4 (aq) 0 to 250 HCl(g) ↔ HCl(aq) −90 to 25 HNO3 (g) ↔ HNO3 (aq) −60 to 120 H2 SO4 (g) ↔ H2 SO4 (aq) −60 to 25 Mg2+ +H2 O ↔ MgOH+ +H+ ≈ 0 to 25 Fe2+ +H2 O ↔ FeOH+ +H+ ↔ CaCO03 Ca2+ +CO2− 3 2− 2+ Mg +CO3 ↔ MgCO03 FeCO03 ↔ Fe2+ +CO2− 3 H2 O ↔ H+ +OH− CO2 + H2 O ↔ H+ +HCO− 3 ≈0 0 0 ≈0 0 0 to to to to to to 25c 25 25 25c 50 100 + 2− HCO− 3 ↔ H +CO3 0 to 100 ↔ H+ +SO2− HSO−1 4 4 −93 to 55 2H2 O(l) ↔ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) ≈ 0 to 25c Marion 2002 Plummer and Busenberg 1982; Marion 2001; He and Morse 1993 Clegg and Brimblecombe 1990b; Marion 2001 Duan et al.

10) The activity of liquid water in equilibrium with pure ice is equal to the equilibrium constant (Kice ) at a given temperature. 3 Chemistries and Their Temperature and Pressure Dependence 25 where fi and fw are the fugacities of water vapor above pure ice and pure liquid water, respectively, and Pi and Pw are the corresponding partial pressures. In this derivation, the water vapor was assumed to behave as an ideal gas, which allows substitution of partial pressures for fugacities. To estimate Kice , the partial pressures of water above pure ice and pure liquid water must therefore be specified.

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