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To indicate that a number is a long, just suffix it with the letter L — for example, 2147483856L or -76L. Like other integers, longs can be written as hexadecimal and octal literals — for example, 0xCAFEBABEL or 0714L. Note: You can use either a small l or a capital L to indicate a long literal. However, a capital L is strongly preferred because the lowercase l is easily confused with the numeral 1 in most typefaces. Previous Table of Contents Next Java Secrets by Elliotte Rusty Harold IDG Books, IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.

An unsigned number uses its high-order bit for data so it can count twice as high as a number that has to reserve one bit for the sign. However, it can only count positive numbers, not negative numbers. Recall that the largest signed byte is 01111111, which is 127 in decimal. 11111111 is not 255 but rather -128. However, by reading 11111111 as an unsigned quantity, the first 1 bit is interpreted as 128, not the - sign. Thus, as unsigned quantity, 11111111 is indeed 255. On the other hand, there’s no way to express negative numbers as unsigned numbers.

Computers can do quite well without an explicit decimal point as long as the byte code sticks to a form of scientific notation. Once we’ve agreed that floating-point numbers will always be written in scientific notation, the mantissa, exponent, and sign of a floating-point number can all be written as integers. Just like the sign bit in integer data types, 1 represents a positive number and 0 represents a negative number. 4 has sign 1, mantissa 154, and exponent 1. 7 × 10-32 has sign 0, mantissa 7, and exponent -32.

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