By Brian Berkowitz
In this up-to-date and accelerated moment version, new literature has been additional on contaminant destiny within the soil-subsurface setting. specifically, extra information at the habit of inorganic contaminants and on engineered nanomaterials have been integrated, the latter comprising a gaggle of “emerging contaminants” that could succeed in the soil and subsurface zones.
New chapters are dedicated to a brand new point of view of contaminant geochemistry, specifically irreversible alterations in pristine land and subsurface structures following chemical infection. chapters have been further in this subject, focusing recognition at the effect of chemical contaminants at the matrix and houses of either liquid and sturdy stages of soil and subsurface domain names. Contaminant affects on irreversible adjustments taking place in groundwater are mentioned and their irreversible adjustments at the porous medium reliable part are surveyed. not like the geological time scale controlling traditional alterations of porous media liquid and good stages, the time scale linked to chemical pollutant caused adjustments is much shorter and extends over a “human lifetime scale”.
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Extra resources for Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment
The presence of CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere affects the partial pressure of gas constituents in the subsurface. For example, carbonate mineral dissolution in a system open to atmospheric CO2 does not achieve equilibrium. However, higher local subsurface CO2 concentrations can originate from biological activity and other oxidation processes. The rate of chemical weathering of minerals in the subsurface depends on a number of factors, including mineralogy, temperature, flow rate, surface area, the presence of ligands and CO2, and Hþ concentrations in the subsurface water (Stumm et al.
Alkali and cationic materials, transition metals, nonmetals, and heavy metals are inorganic trace elements potentially found in the composition of the subsurface solution. Adsorption is the most significant mechanism for distributing trace elements between the solid and liquid phases in the subsurface. • Organic ligands found in solution cause complexation of inorganic trace elements, which influences the equilibrium status between solid and aqueous phases and affects their concentration in the subsurface solution.
18 1 Characterization of the Subsurface Environment Fig. 2 Subsurface Liquid Phase Within the subsurface zone, two liquid phase regions can be defined. One region, containing water near the solid surfaces, is considered the most important surface reaction zone. This ‘‘near solid phase water,’’ which is affected by the solid phase properties, controls the diffusion of the mobile fraction of the solute adsorbed on the solid phase. The second region constitutes the ‘‘free’’ water zone, which governs liquid and chemical flow in the porous medium.