By J.R. Becker
Becker explains the actual chemical difficulties linked to waxes and emulsions and the recent applied sciences for therapy of those difficulties. Contents: Petroleum businesses and emulsions Forces interested by macroscopic actual habit of emulsions Oil and water emulsion breakers Petroleum businesses and waxes Chemical surfaces Wax crystal order and temperature Wax: actual houses and quantum results Ashaltenes and crude oil Ashaltenes: bulk habit and checking out equipment actual homes of treating chemical substances Appendices
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Additional resources for Crude Oil Waxes, Emulsions, and Asphaltenes
Therefore it is the relatively infrequent number of collisions, and the number of lower velocity aggregates of the Gaussian velocity distribution, that prevent the spontaneous resolution of the emulsion. Gravitational Settling Forces Rather than going through any more calculations, it may be instructive to consider the value for the average velocity of the aggregate emulsion obtained above in relation to the acceleration due to gravity (g). Integrating g with respect to time (using 1 sec), a velocity vector pointing down is obtained with a magnitude of 980 cm/sec.
When the temperature is increased, this equilibrium balance is shifted, and a more rapid interchange occurs. If the temperature becomes great enough, the solute molecules being transferred will obtain sufficient energy to escape the system, and the internal phase will be depleted of solvent. Meanwhile the external phase is also being depleted of solvent, and the differential rate of solvent loss between the two phases determines the overall system stability. The dynamics of this temperature effect on emulsion aggregates are depicted in Figure 3–3.
Two of the bipolar molecules mentioned earlier (naphthoic and stearic acids) provide good examples of these different behaviors. 5° C, respectively. Both of these acids are found in crude oil, and therefore represent good candidates for discussion. Although the hydrogen bonding capabilities of naphthoic acid are limited, aromatic ring interactions of the unpaired electrons plus the carboxyl group interactions combine to produce its high boiling point. Solvation by the nonpolar phase is therefore less successful than it is in the case of stearic acid.