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Additional resources for Defense in Depth for Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA TECDOC-1218)
Provisions: Mechanisms: Challenges: Safety functions: 39 Proper trip set points to actuate automatic action Incorrect operator action during manual operation Proper trip set points to actuate automatic action Keeping automatic control system operational Automatic control insufficient Reliability of safety systems impaired by their frequent actuation Trip set points and safety limits set up incorrectly Neutronic and thermohydraulic parameters not maintained in operating ranges, leading to higher demands on safety systems SFs(1)–(3) affected FIG.
Each objective tree itself starts with an indication of the FSFs/SFs to be performed in order to achieve the objectives for the given safety principle(s); it is then followed by the challenges which might have an impact on the performance of SFs and the mechanisms leading to individual challenges, and finally a list of the provisions to be implemented to avoid occurrence of the mechanisms. g. Fig. 15). g. SP (200) for Levels of defence 3 and 4, which are presented separately for SF (2) and SF (3) in Figs 33 and 34, respectively.
Cables, junctions, penetrations and degrading materials Safety related equipment designed for inspections Undetected degradation of functional capability of safety related equipment due to lack of inspections All FSFs affected: controlling reactivity, cooling fuel, confining radioactive material FIG. 25. Objective tree for Levels 1–4 of defence in depth (ISI, in-service inspection; RCS, reactor coolant system). Safety principle (186): ease of access of safety equipment for inspection. Provisions: Mechanisms: Challenges: Safety functions: 45 Area monitoring system Avoidance of design features which retain activated materials Monitoring and control of working environment Control of access to radioactive areas Facilities for personnel and area monitoring Facilities for personnel decontamination Surface finishing to facilitate decontamination Conservative design of radioactive waste systems Appropriate location of plant components Ventilation systems with adequate filtration Environmental monitoring programme Adequate shielding of plant components Planned and authorized maintenance and engineering modification activities Minimization of human activities in radiation fields Choice of material with low residual activity Use of materials with limited activation by neutrons Radiation protection requirements on plant layout Direct exposure of workers to radiation Suitable containers for radioactive materials Contamination of workers by radioactive material Conservative process monitoring system Incorrect measurement of effluent activity Radiation exposure of operating and maintenance staff above prescribed limits Discharges above the prescribed limits Undetected leaks of radioactive waste and airborne radioactive materials SF(15) affected: to maintain control of environmental conditions within the plant SF(14) affected: to limit radioactive discharges during operational states FIG.