By David Wright
For one hundred fifty years, Down Syndrome has constituted the archetypal psychological incapacity, simply recognisable by way of precise facial anomalies and actual stigmata. In a slim scientific experience, Down Syndrome is a typical affliction because of the presence of all or a part of an additional twenty first chromosome. it truly is named after John Langdon Down, the British asylum clinical superintendent who defined the syndrome as 'Mongolism' in a chain of lectures in 1866. In 1959, the ailment used to be pointed out as a chromosome 21 trisomy by way of the French paediatrician and geneticist Jï¿½rï¿½me Lejeune and has considering that been referred to as Down Syndrome (in the English-speaking international) or Trisomy 21 (in many eu countries). yet childrens and adults born with this chromosomal abnormality have an enormous collective historical past past their glaring value to the background of clinical science.
David Wright, a Professor within the heritage of drugs at McMaster college, seems on the care and therapy of people with Down Syndrome - defined for far of heritage as 'idiots', - from Medieval Europe to the current day. the invention of the genetic foundation of the and the profound adjustments in attitudes, care, and early identity of Down Syndrome in the genetic period, displays the interesting scientific and social background of the affliction.
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Additional info for Down's Syndrome: The History of a Disability
The system had been taken up and reﬁned by the French army as a means of reading coded messages in the dark. An ofﬁcer, Charles Barbier, sent his system to the French National Institution for Deaf-Mutes for use in teaching. One young adult student, Louis Braille, reﬁned the system of embossed dots into simple 2 ´ 3 matrices. It was only one of many different systems in use, but its ﬂexibility and simplicity quickly ensured that the Braille method would succeed as the most important system of reading for the blind, becoming the standard European method by the end of the nineteenth century.
Forced to ﬂee England, Locke returned in 1688 following the so-called Glorious Revolution and began publishing many of his political tracts that had been written in prior decades. His biggest contribution to Enlightenment thinking was his support for individual consent as the basis for political legitimacy, as articulated most famously in his Two Treatises of Government (1689). Locke argued that citizens had an obligation to rise up against any government that abused the protections of life, liberty, and property, the basis on which government was formed in the ﬁrst place.
However, rarely were the mentally disabled convicted; instead, they were usually dismissed when the individual was found non compos mentis (of unsound mind) and remanded to their family or, in rare cases, incarcerated. This was particularly true of idiots charged with offenses. ’9 In absolving the mentally disabled from guilt, commentators universally agreed that their bodily and mental conditions were punishment enough—what they called, rather poetically, the ‘misfortune of fate’. By the eighteenth century, public enquiries of mental capacity, called Inquisitions (not to be confused with the religious Inquisitions in Spain and elsewhere), began to emerge.