Download Encyclopedia of Energy Volume III (Encyclopedia of Energy by Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D PDF

By Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D Ilic, Eberhard Jochem, Robert Kaufmann, Amory B Lovins, Mohan Munasinghe, R K Pachauri, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo, Per Peterson, Lee Schipper, Margaret Slade, Vaclav Smil, Ernst Worrell, Cutler J. C

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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Energy Volume III (Encyclopedia of Energy Series)

Example text

Environmental protection expenditures could be shown explicitly as ‘‘thereof’’ items of the supply and use of products in Fig. 3. The SEEA identifies these expenditures in appropriate classifications but does not suggest their deduction from GDP as a defense against welfare losses. Accounting for natural capital consumption and maintenance (through reinvestment) extends the sustainability notion, as already built into the conventional net indicators of value added and capital formation, into the field of environmental services for the economy.

The figure also shows the two basic functions of the environment: (1) resource supply of raw materials, space, and energy to the economy (source function) and (2) waste assimilation (sink function). The latter represent an important ecological service. Other ecosystem services such as habitat for species, soil protection, or local climate control are sometimes categorized as indirect benefits for humans; they are probably better assessed by regionalized environmental and ecological statistics. The fortunate coincidence of physical laws that ensure the equality of inputs and outputs of energy and materials, and input-output based economic accounting points to an obvious approach of applying the latter to the former.

Gloof can be almost anything: tons of steel, pounds of butter, hours in a dentist’s chair, dollars worth of day care, etc. It can even vary from compartment to compartment (as in the following example). The assumptions are as follows: 1. Every flow in the system that we wish to count (units ¼ gloof/time) has an associated energy Goods and Services: Energy Costs intensity according to its source compartment (units ¼ energy/gloof). 2. Embodied energy flows everywhere there are flows that we consider important, and the magnitude of the embodied energy flow (units ¼ energy/time) is the product of the energy intensity (units ¼ energy/ gloof) times the original flow (units ¼ gloof/time).

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