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By K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner

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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security, Volume 3 (R - Z, Index)

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As a result a strong competition to the retinal scans was launched by iris scanning technology. The number of companies offering iris scanning are increasing. The main reason is the fact that the iris is also unique and offers high confidence in identification. There is only a chance of one in 1078 that two irises will be identical. Iris scans use the characteristics more similar to fingerprints than to the retinal vein pattern. The colored part of the eye appears to be as unique as fingerprints and retina.

SANDY FELSENTHAL/CORBIS. At the outbreak of war, the fledgling American government had few resources, and was still divided by the competing interests of rival colonies. Many leaders were suspicious of establishing permanent, national militaries. The American colonies had to recruit volunteers, train, and arm soldiers, a daunting task for the new nation. Colonial militias aided in training soldiers, and at the outbreak of the war, American military command decided to use their more limited forces in guerilla attacks against the stronger, more formalized British army.

Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II. New York: Touchstone Books, 2002. Matthews, Tony. Shadows Dancing: Japanese Espionage Against the West. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. SEE ALSO Purple Machine World War II, United States Breaking of Japanese Naval Codes Red Hand Defenders (RHD) Red Hand Defenders (RHD) is an extremist terrorist group formed in 1998 and composed largely of Protestant hardliners from loyalist groups observing a cease-fire. RHD seeks to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists by attacking Catholic civilian interests in Northern Ireland.

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