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14. Yule, G. U. and Kendall, M. G. (1947). An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. Charles Griffin, London. See also ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE; ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE; CORRELATION; DEPENDENCE, MEASURES AND INDICES OF; KENDALL’S TAU —I; SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT; SURVEY SAMPLING; and VARIANCE COMPONENTS. GARY G. KOCH INTRINSIC RANK TEST RATIONALE This inherently nonparametric test may be viewed as a generalization of the ksample median test to a k-sample, h-quantile test. It may be considered as an alternative to ANOVA∗ proper, when the normality assumptions for the latter are not even remotely met, or as a substitute for the classical Kruskal–Wallis∗ (analysis of variance by ranks) test, which relies on squared rank sums, and therefore is highly sensitive to spurious interchanges of ordinal ranks due to measurement uncertainties unrelated to the inference sought.

Biom. , 24, 679–684. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gibbons, J. D. (1971). Nonparametric Statistical Inference. McGraw-Hill, Toronto. ) Kannemann, K. (1980). Biom. , 22, 229–239. ) Kendall, M. G. and Stuart, A. (1979). The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2, 3rd. Edn. Charles Griffin, London. ) K. KANNEMANN INVARIANCE INTRODUCTION In statistics the term ‘‘invariance’’ is generally used in its mathematical sense to denote a property that remains unchanged under a particular transformation, and, in practice, many statistical problems possess such a property.

10 20 30 Months 40 50 60 3. Betensky, R. A. (2000). On nonidentifiability and noninformative censoring for current status data. Biometrika, 87, 218–221. 4. Dempster, A. , Laird, N. , and Rubin, D. B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm (with discussion). J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B, 39, 1–38. ¨ 5. , and Jongbloed, G. (2003). Estimating a unimodal distribution from interval-censored data, Technical Report, University of Bern. 6. Fay, M. P. (1996). Rank invariant tests for interval censored data under the grouped continous model.

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