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The hindbrain is composed of the cerebellum and medulla oblongata (continuous with the spinal cord); it is the center for motor coordination and is small in lissamphibians. The cranial nerves emerging from the hindbrain are V (trigeminal, serving the jaws and mouth), VI (abducens, serving eye muscles), VII (facial, serving lateral-line organ of head and taste buds), VIII (auditory, serving inner ear), IX (glossophryngeal, serving taste buds, pharynx, and lateral line), X (vagus, serving areas of mouth, pharynx, and viscera), and XI (spinal accessory, serving the muscle suspending pectoral girdle).

Batrachoseps, Bolitoglossa, Ensatina, Desmognathus, Hemidactylium, and Plethodon). Because egg deposition may occur many months after insemination by spermatophores, males of these salamanders may no longer be in the vicinity and do not attend nests. The duration of female attendance varies from about six weeks in Ambystoma opacum to nearly six months in Bolitoglossa rostrata. Females of some caecilians (Ichthyophis and Idiocranium) and one salamander (Amphiuma) are known to coil around subterranean clutches of eggs, presumably to minimize desiccation, or loss of moisture.

6: Amphibians Structure and function Salamander skeleton. (Illustration by Marguette Dongvillo) The musculoskeletal system of most salamanders is rather generalized, having a relatively undifferentiated axial skeleton and poorly developed girdles that are not firmly attached to the vertebral column; the trunk musculature, however, is well developed. When startled, most salamanders undulate their body to move across the substrate. Otherwise, they throw their body into alternate curves to advance the stride of each forelimb as they move deliberately across the substrate.

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