Download Examination Review for Ultrasound: Sonographic Principles & by Steven M. Penny PDF

By Steven M. Penny

Introducing an incredible source for college students and sonographers getting ready to sit down for the Sonography rules and Instrumentation (SPI) exam provided via the ARDMS (American Registry for Diagnostic clinical Sonography) sonography credential granting association. a story sort examination assessment, this source is perfect for ultrasound courses requiring a certification evaluate handbook for both a overview path or to be used through the curriculum, in addition to for any expert getting ready for certification. With content material according to present examination codecs, this ebook can assist scholars establish strengths, check and conquer weaknesses, and ace the attempt. The significant other site comprises a web examination simulation, with 1000s of extra questions, according to the content material define of the Sonography rules and Instrumentation provided via the ARDMS.

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Additional info for Examination Review for Ultrasound: Sonographic Principles & Instrumentation (SPI)

Example text

The resonating element produces a pressure wave. This wave consists of alternating waves of high pressure and low pressure, or compressions and rarefactions, respectively. The resonating frequency, also known as the center or operating frequency, of a medical diagnostic ultrasound transducer is typically between 2 and 15 MHz. This expanding and contracting of the element produces a propagating ultrasound wave that travels into the human body. Many ultrasound transducers use pulsed sound. Piezoelectric elements can both send and receive ultrasound but not at the same time.

Oblique incidence is complex, and reflection/transmission of sound cannot be predicted. Any sound that is reflected with an oblique angle of incidence does not return to the transducer. However, as with normal incidence, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence (␪r ϭ ␪i). Two types of oblique angles are acute (Ͻ90Њ) and obtuse (Ͼ90Њ). The intensity of sound reflected at an interface is dependent upon the intensity of the transmitted sound and the difference in impedances between the two media.

The amplitudes of the two waves are added together, which results in one large wave. (Image reprinted with permission from Bushberg J. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging. 2nd Ed. ) FIGURE 2-3 11378_ch02 19/10/10 4:47 PM Page 37 C H A P T E R 2 | U LT R A S O U N D T R A N S D U C E R S 37 Demonstration of two out-of-phase waves. With nonidentical waves, as demonstrated in this image, the resultant wave has a smaller amplitude than the two initial waves. With identical waves, they cancel each other out.

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