By Richard J. Goy
Every year, hundreds of thousands of tourists go back and forth to Florence to respect the architectural marvels of this well-known Renaissance urban. during this compact but accomplished quantity, architect and architectural historian Richard J. Goy deals a handy, available advisor to the city's piazzas, palazzos, basilicas, and different architectural attractions, in addition to pertinent ancient info concerning Florence's designated city environment.
Clearly laid out and completely illustrated, this guide is designed round a chain of expertly deliberate strolling excursions that surround not just the city's so much sought after architectural websites, but in addition its lesser-known gem stones. Maps are adapted to every strolling travel and supply extra references and insights, in addition to introductory chapters at the city's architectural heritage, city layout, and construction fabrics and strategies. that includes a whole bibliography, thesaurus of key words, and different beneficial reference fabrics, Goy's advisor will charm either to tourists who want a better architectural context and research than that provided by way of a standard consultant and to come viewers trying to rediscover Florence's such a lot mesmerizing websites.
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Extra info for Florence: A Walking Guide to Its Architecture
2. Calculate the balanced normalized reinforcement ratios when both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements yield simultaneously with crushing of diagonal struts hlb and htb 4. 2g) 5. 2h) 6. Use wL and wt to determine the value of ws from Fig. 2. The coordinate (wL, wt) in the four failure mode regions also determines the member failure mode; and 7. Determine the torsional strength. 2i) The graphical solution using Fig. 2 is not exact. Its accuracy is affected by the aspect ratio of the cross section and the difference in the yield stresses, fℓy and fty, when calculating fy = (fℓy + fty)/2.
These actions are illustrated by an equivalent structure shown in Fig. 4b. Slab action is modeled as truss elements posi- tioned eccentric to the centroidal axes of the beam elements and connected to the beams through short rigid segments. For any curvature distribution along the longitudinal or main beams as identified in the figure, this configuration creates a corresponding elongation at mid-depth of the slab. Truss forces are transferred to the transverse beam by modeled truss elements in the slab, creating a torsional lever arm in the transverse (spandrel) beam.
3f. Two simple equations (Eq. 3b)) are derived based on this theory. 5, and 1. The increase in torsional strength calculated using both equations is larger than the experimentally-observed increase shown in Fig. 3d. Both equations give acceptable results when pure torsion strength To is taken as the conservatively calculated value, as demonstrated by Lampert and Collins (1972). Since 1971, ACI code procedures for the design of members subjected to flexure and torsion are based on the superposition of reinforcement required to resist torsion (longitudinal and transverse) and flexural moment (longitudinal).