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By A. Gene Collins (Eds.)

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The color change occurs because the metalindicator complex ionizes, and the free metal is completely complexed by the EDTA, leaving a free indicator. Sample size Because many petroleum-associated waters contain high concentrations of dissolved solids including calcium and magnesium, it usually is necessary t o dilute them or to use a micropipet t o obtain a small sample before performing a complexometric titration. VII1, which is applicable to most oilfield brines. A more rapid method of obtaining a fraction of a milliliter of a liquid sample is direct measurement using a micropipet.

The following definitions and rules are suggested for retention of significant figures. A number is an expression of quantity. A figure or digit is any of the characters 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, which, alone or in combination, serves to express a number. A significant figure is a digit that denotes the amount of the quantity in the place in which it stands. Reported values should contain only significant figures. A value is made up of significant figures when it contains all digits known to be true and one last digit in doubt.

The necessary equipment includes a hotplate, a 10-ml microburet, flasks, and pipets. Procedure. 05N silver nitrate solution until the red endpoint just persists. Calculation: ml AgN03 x N x 35,500 = mg,l clml sample The precision and accuracy of the method are about 1%and 2%, respectively, of the amount present. Bromide and iodide Bromide and iodide are present in almost all petroleum-associated waters. In the following procedure, iodide is selectively oxidized t'o iodate with bromine water; excess bromine is reacted with sodium formate.

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