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By J.W. Morse, F.T. Mackenzie

This publication covers the extra uncomplicated facets of carbonate minerals and their interplay with aqueous suggestions; sleek marine carbonate formation and sediments; carbonate diagenesis (early marine, meteoric and burial); the worldwide cycle of carbon and human intervention; and the position of sedimentary carbonates as symptoms of balance and adjustments within the Earth's floor atmosphere. the chosen matters are offered with enough historical past details to allow the non-specialist to appreciate the fundamental chemistry concerned. proven on periods taught by means of the authors, and authorized via the scholars, this accomplished quantity will end up itself to be a useful reference resource to scholars, researchers and execs within the fields of oceanography, geochemistry, petrology, environmental technology and petroleum geology.

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An important subgroup of the CaCO3 minerals is the magnesian calcites. They are common components of shallow water, marine sediments, where they are derived from the skeletons of organisms and by direct precipitation of marine cements. Their solubility is strongly influenced by their magnesium content. In seawater, biogenic magnesian calcite containing -11 mole % MgC03 may have about the same solubility as aragonite. The characteristics and complex properties of this variety of calcite are extensively discussed in Chapter 3.

4. 7. Influence of temperature on selected equilibrium constants. -. 16 Ref. 3 1 2 3 2 1- Miller0 (1979). 2-Plummer and Busenberg (1982). 3-Mucci (1983). All values of parameter E = 0. h) W 24 THE C02-CARBONIC ACID SYSTEM AND SOLUTION CHEMISTRY 0 0 lD 0 0 - *: 2 ln O * 0 2 W P 0 0 0 (0 0 0 - - 5m ?! 8. 45. 400 0 Selected from Millero (1982b, 1983), except for H20 where values are approximate based on data in handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Weast, 1985), and B(OH)3 data from Ward and Millero (1974).

2. Ion size parameters for the Debye-Huckel equation. 5 5 6 8 9 Ion NH4+ K+, C1-, NO3OH-, HS-, Mn04-, FS042-, P043-, HP042Na+, HCO3-, H2PO4-, HSO3C032-, SO32Sr2+, Ba2+, S2Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ Mg2+ H+, Al3+, Fe3+ From Berner (1971) as adapted from Klotz (1950). 2. The change i n the value of the ion activity coefficient as a function of ionic strength for -1 and +2 ions calculated from the Davies equation, and HC03and Ca2+ calculated using the Debye-Huckel method. 3 values are presented for the thermodynamic constants at 25OC used to calculate ion pairs for some of the commonly encountered ions in natural waters.

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