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By Nicolás Castilla

Тепличное растениеводство и развитие новых технологий для улучшения процессов.

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14 Chapter 2 Earth’s rotation axis North Pole Arctic Circle Solar rays 66º South Spain 37º N 53º HL Night 23º27' Tropic of Cancer 0º Equator Day 23º27' Tropic of Capricorn 67º HL N 90º HL HL 67º N N 66º South Pole Antarctic Circle Fig. 5. The incidence of the solar rays on the Earth in the equinoxes. N, Apparent position of the Sun at noon at different latitudes; HL, horizontal line on each latitude. 1. Duration of the astronomic day (expressed in hours and tenths of an hour) depending on the latitude.

12. The radiation impacting on a surface is calculated by the Lambert’s cosine law (see text). The solar radiation values are measured, by convention, over a horizontal surface. as no more than 75% of it, under normal conditions (Monteith and Unsworth, 1990). The global radiation values are measured, by convention, over a horizontal surface, being admitted as a general rule that 48% of the global radiation is PAR radiation (Hanan, 1998). The proportions of direct and diffuse solar energy vary with the turbidity and transparency of the atmosphere, also influenced by the Sun’s elevation.

3. By the relative humidity (RH) of the air, expressed as a percentage of the partial The External Climate water vapour pressure under certain given conditions, with respect to the saturation water vapour pressure (es). RH = 100(ea/es). It changes with temperature. (a) 25 4. By the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) or saturation deficit. This expresses the amount of water that the air, at a certain temperature, can still absorb before reaching saturation. Almeria (Spain) 30 Jun May 25 Jul Apr 20 Aug Mar 15 Sep Feb 10 Oct Jan 5 Nov Dec 0 0 5 10 20 May 25 Jun Aug Mar 15 Feb 10 Jan Sep Oct Nov Dec 5 0 5 10 30 30 Jul Apr 20 0 25 Tenerife (Spain) 30 Radiation (MJ m–2 day –1) 15 15 20 25 30 20 25 30 De Bilt (The Netherlands) 25 20 Jun May 15 Jul Apr Aug Sep Mar 10 Feb 5 Jan 0 0 Oct Dec 5 Nov 10 15 Temperature (°C) Fig.

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