Download Models of Horizontal Eye Movements, Part 1: Early Models of by John D. Enderle PDF

By John D. Enderle

There are 5 sorts of eye activities: saccades, soft pursuit, vestibular ocular eye activities, optokinetic eye activities, and vergence eye pursuits. the aim of this publication is targeted totally on mathematical types of the horizontal saccadic eye stream process and the sleek pursuit procedure, instead of on how visible info is processed. A saccade is a quick eye flow used to procure a aim by way of putting clone of the objective at the fovea. delicate pursuit is a sluggish eye circulation used to trace a objective because it strikes by means of maintaining the objective at the fovea. The vestibular ocular move is used to maintain the eyes on a aim in the course of short head routine. The optokinetic eye move is a mix of saccadic and gradual eye events that retains a full-field picture strong at the retina in the course of sustained head rotation. each one of those routine is a conjugate eye stream, that's, activities of either eyes jointly pushed through a typical neural resource. A vergence stream is a non-conjugate eye flow permitting the eyes to trace objectives as they arrive nearer or farther away. during this booklet, early versions of saccades and gentle pursuit are offered. the graceful pursuit method permits monitoring of a gradual relocating aim to take care of its place at the fovea. versions of the graceful pursuit were constructed utilizing structures keep an eye on concept, all regarding a detrimental suggestions keep watch over procedure that features a time hold up, controller and plant within the ahead loop, with team spirit suggestions. The oculomotor plant and saccade generator are the fundamental parts of the saccadic process. The oculomotor plant involves 3 muscle pairs and the eyeball. a few oculomotor plant types are defined the following starting with the Westheimer version released in 1954, and up via our 1995 version concerning a 4$^{th}$ order oculomotor plant version. The paintings provided this is now not an exhaustive insurance of the sector, yet concerned with the pursuits of the writer.

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Read or Download Models of Horizontal Eye Movements, Part 1: Early Models of Saccades and Smooth Pursuit (Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering) PDF

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Models of Horizontal Eye Movements, Part 1: Early Models of Saccades and Smooth Pursuit (Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering)

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Extra info for Models of Horizontal Eye Movements, Part 1: Early Models of Saccades and Smooth Pursuit (Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering)

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DATA, PARAMETER ESTIMATION AND THE SMOOTH PURSUIT MODEL Data were collected on the time delays for the saccadic branch and smooth pursuit branch, eye and target velocity and the rise-time for the open- and closed-loop experiments. From this analysis, a final smooth pursuit model was determined. To collect data for the saccade branch, the target movement consists of a series of step displacements, which did not elicit a smooth pursuit movement. From these movements, the time delay for the saccade branch was calculated as approximately 200 ms.

11) t=Tmv where Tmv is the time at peak velocity. Substituting the solution given by Eq. 6) into Eq. 11) yields: −γ e−ζ ωn t ζ ωn cos(ωd t + ψ) + ωd sin(ωd t + ψ) K 1 − ζ2 −γ = −ζ ωn e−ζ ωn t (ζ ωn cos(ωd t + ψ) + ωd sin(ωd t + ψ)) K 1 − ζ2 +e−ζ ωn t − ζ ωn ωd sin(ωd t + ψ) + ωd2 cos(ωd t + ψ) = 0 . 12) The terms multiplying the sinusoids in Eq. Therefore, ωd2 − ζ 2 ωn2 cos(ωd t + ψ) − 2ζ ωn ωd sin(ωd t + ψ) = 0 which reduces to ωd2 − ζ 2 ωn2 sin(ωd t + ψ) = = tan(ωd t + ψ) . 13) Substituting ωd = ωn (1 − ζ 2 ) into Eq.

Forces acting on nodes 1 and 2. T = Kse (x2 − x1 ) F = Klt x2 + Kse (x2 − x1 ) → F + Kse x1 . 25) Substituting x2 from Eq. 24) gives T = Kse Kse Klt Kse F− x1 . 26) Klt se F and slope KKsese+K . 26) is an equation for a straight line with y-intercept KseK+K lt lt ◦ slope of the length-tension curve in Fig. 86 N/m. 86 Kse + Klt N . 7 Kse − K N . 28) Solving Eq. 4 FORCE-VELOCITY RELATIONSHIP Early experiments indicated that muscle had elastic as well as viscous properties. Muscle was tested under isotonic (constant force) experimental conditions as shown in Fig.

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